Project Rocket  Engagement Plan
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About the Project
Project Name  Rockets  Let’s Launch them. 
Format  Makershala for schools (school classroom/lab) 
Project Duration  250 hours 
Project Goal  Space exploration has become critical for human existence & evolution. Commercialization of the space market opens up doors for independent space enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Rockets are the most important part of this industry. Our aim is to start our journey into spacetech by studying how to achieve stable rocket flight by building a model rocket system. 
Problem/Challenge  To design and build a model rocket that can carry a given load to a given height. 
Skills and Competencies  21CSSLCSSCS. Social Skills 21CSSLCSCMS. Communication Skills 21CSSCSSCRT. NCreative Thinking 21CSSLCSICT. ICT Skills 21CSSCSSINO. Innovation 
Disciplines and Concepts  Laws of Motion (MSPSFAI) Center of Gravity (MSPSFAI18) Center of Pressure  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) Design in Engineering and Technology Education (MSETETS07) Aerodynamics (MSPSFAI52) Angles (MSMSGEO09) Graphical Scaling (HSMSQNT02) Graphical geometry (MSMSGEO) 
Project Description  The project is aimed towards developing fundamental skills of rocketry in learners so as to enable them for future opportunities arising with evergrowing industry of government as well as private spacetech organizations. During the project, learners will work collaboratively in a team to achieve a common project goal based on the inquiry — How to achieve a stable rocket flight by building a model rocket system. The Journey will encourage learners to learn and apply concepts of physical and mathematical sciences — center of gravity, center of pressure, graphical scaling and geometry, laws of motion, and more. The project will also create events for learners where they will build and demonstrate critical thinking, scientific thinking, and information literacy skills. 
Milestones with Engagement Plan
ENGAGEMENT  OBJECTIVE  ESTIMATED DURATION 
Milestone 1: Studying, building, and testing key components of a rocket system  
Task 1: Understand project goal and document it in Journal Task 2: Explore space missions and make a report on the rockets used by the mission.  3040 minutes  
Engagement 2  Task 3: Build model rocket, launcher, and sextant Task 4: Set up launching environment  3040 minutes 
Engagement 3  Task 5: Launch model rocket  
Milestone 2: Explore what enables a rocket’s flight.  
Engagement 4  Task 6: Find, how to achieve stable rocket flight?  3040 minutes 
Milestone 3: Analyzing parameter that affect rocket design  
Engagement 5  Task 7: Sketching an idea of a rocket that can carry the payload. Task 8: Test rocket’s stability using swing test  3040 minutes 
Milestone 4: Building a model rocket that can carry a given payload to a given height  
Engagement 6  Task 9: Launching Rocket with payload and testing it’s flight  3040 minutes 
Engagement 1
Establishing project goal and exploring importance of rocket in a space mission
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Inquiry Stage  I Explore 
Milestone  Studying, building, and testing key components of a rocket system 
Learning Objective  To introduce the project goal and let learners explore recent space missions to explore a variety of rockets and their specifications. 
Learning Outcome 

Success Criteria 

Concepts  Ratio (MSMSRPR01) Unit COnversion (HSPSPMR) 
Requirements (Mentors will need these to run the engagements) 

Tools and Material (Learners will require these to complete the tasks in this engagement) 

Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Description
Task 1: Understand project goal and document it in Journal
What is expected through this task?
Learners are introduced with project goal using Engagement presentation, the scenario of which is described below:
Space exploration has become critical for human existence & evolution. Commercialization of the space market opens up doors for independent space enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Rockets are the most important part of this industry. Our aim is to start our journey into spacetech by studying how to achieve stable rocket flight by building a model rocket system.
Source: Statista and BryceTech
Note: Also tell learners the source of the data, and emphasize that whenever they get data from the internet, the information about its source should also be collected.
Tell learners that in this project they will be working as rocket designers and you will be playing the role of their Project Manager. Tell them that they will be working on designing a rocket so that it can carry some payload to a certain height — Show them the Challenge on slide and ask each learner to write the challenge in their Journal.
Challenge: To design and build a model rocket that can carry a given load to a given height.
Ask learners to write the challenge statement in their journal.
Tell them — They would be required to accomplish some milestone in order to complete the project. Show them Project Milestones on slide and tell them that today they will be working on Milestone 1 and give them the brief about Milestone 1 only.
 Milestone1: Studying, building, and testing key components of a rocket system
Brief — We will build a testing environment for model rockets that we will design, build, redesign, and rebuild throughout the project.
 Milestone2: Explore forces that enable rocket’s flight.
 Milestone3: Analyzing parameter that affect rocket design
 Milestone4: Building a model rocket that can carry a given payload to a given height
Ask learners to write milestones in their Journal.
Tell learners — Before knowing about the project, let’s explore the structure of a rocket, as our project is based on it.
Actively engage learners to help you in filling the blank labels of the rocket structure. Nonlabeled and labeled images are given below, for reference.
:
If time persists, Ask learners to simultaneously draw a rough sketch of the rocket in their journal labeling mentioned parts.
Once done with a structural labeling task, ask learners — Why do you humans use rockets?
Expected response: To carry satellites and other spacecraft in space.
Conclude: Learners may come up with many answers, scaffold them towards the fact that rockets work as vehicles for carriages that we send to space — satellite, space stations, rovers, spacecraft, etc. Generally, whatever a rocket carries is called its payload. Using the slide, show learners where payload is kept inside a rocket.
Tell learners — Now as we are familiar with rocket structure and goal of this project. Let us do some research about the space missions organized by any space agency and find specifications of rockets used in it.
Task 2: Explore space missions and make a report on the rockets used by the mission.
Skill: I can gather data from multiple resources. (21CSSCTSIISDLN02)
How mentioned skill is used: Learners explore space missions from different internet sources and gather data about the mission as well as space vehicles and payload used in the mission. Also, learners develop a report based on their exploration providing relevant credits to source of information.
What is expected through this task?
Learners must be familiar with basic terms and general specifications of the rocket. To help them actively seek this information, learners go through recent missions of ISRO, NASA or any other space agency to find out the rocket used in the mission and collect below listed information about them.
Note: Usage of ICT is recommended for this task.
Suggestion: Each team can be provided with 10 to 20 minutes for completing this task.
 Mission
 Rocket used
 Payload to rocket
 Height of rocket
 Weight of rocket
 Payload Capacity of the rocket
 Stages of the rocket
 Diameter of the rocket
 Other missions by the rocket
 Appeared Design:
 Description of Nose Cone
 Description of Fins
 Description of the Body of the rocket
 Source of Information
Provide learners with Space Mission Report  Worksheet in printed form to fill in their findings.
Conclude: As we have explored and understood that a rocket is a critical element of every space mission and its flight should be stable as well as effective. Therefore, we will establish a testing environment for rockets in next activity.
Engagement 2
Setting up the testing environment for model rocket
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Inquiry Stage  I Explore 
Milestone  Studying, building, and testing key components of a rocket system 
Learning Objective  To introduce the project goal and let learners prepare a launching environment and tools for rocket flight testing and exploration. 
Learning Outcome 

Success Criteria 

Concepts  Angles (MSMSGEO09) Graphical Scaling (HSMSQNT02) Graphical geometry (MSMSGEO) 
Requirements (Mentors will need these to run the engagements)  
Tools and Material (Learners will require these to complete the tasks in this engagement) 

Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Description
Task 3: Build model rocket, launcher, and sextant
Skill used: I can collaborate with other team members in a congenial manner.
How mentioned skill is used: As learners collaborated with each other to achieve a common goal (building rockets, launcher, and sextant), they have demonstrated desired competency.
What is expected through this task?
Learners build model rockets, launchers, and sextant using building guides and then move on to understand the field plan for setting up the launch and observation environment.
Tell learners — They will build a model rocket and instruments that would help them set up a rocket launching environment and then in the next activity they will go to an open area to test their launching environment.
Building rockets
Learners, in a team, build one rocket (as per the given template).
Mentor’s responsibility — Ask minimum one team to build a model rocket exactly as it is guided through Building guide. Also, ask at least one team to make following variations in rocket design:
 Model Rocket without fins
 Model rocket with added weight on its top, by wrapping more tape around the nose cone.
 Model rocket with longer length — It can be built by adding extra cylinder to rocket height and then joining them with papertape.
 If possible, changes in size and number of fins can also be done.
Building a launcher
Meanwhile, 2 to 4 randomly selected volunteers by the mentors will be building the rocket launcher (one or two depending upon school and classroom environment) in the given time. Video Tutorial to build a rocket launcher.
Building 4 sextants
You may also select 4 more learners that would work on building 4 sextants using the Sextant template.
Arrangement of learners can be decided by a mentor as per the class’s strength.
Incase you find learners troubling with making of rockets, launcher, or sextant using given guides, its is recommended to use below listed videos for the purpose:
 To build the rocket and launcher — DIY Space: Stomp Rockets  Make the Rocket (Part 1)  YouTube
 To build sextant — DIY Space: Stomp Rockets  Launch, Measure & Calculate (Part 2)  YouTube
Task 4: Set up launching environment
Concept Used: Angles  Graphical Scaling  Graphical geometry
How: Learners use their knowledge of angles, graphical geometry, and graphical scaling to calculate the height of a triangle when other parameters such as angles and base length is given.
What is expected through this task?
Learners setup a launching environment for their model rocket flight and launch a model rocket to make relevant observations (angles from two observation stations using sextant, and distance between two observation stations) that would help them in calculating the rocket’s height and interpret the impact of various changes in rocket design on its flight. Then, using the graph method, learners will calculate the height achieved by the rocket in observed flight.
Once learners have built the rocket, sextant, and launcher, tell them that they will launch it in an open space. For that we would have to follow a field layout — show learners the field layout on slides.
Describe each position of the field layout to learners. Description of each position for your reference has been given below:
 Launch site — It is the position where you will place the launcher.
 Observation Station — Two observation stations will be marked, each having equal distance from the launcher.
 Observers and Recorders — 2 to 4 observers (as per the class strength) will observe angles using sextant on each side and recorders will add those observed angle into the sheets.
 Launch Assistants — Launch assistants are learners who will be launching the rocket from the launch side.
 Spectators — It is the space where learners who are not actively volunteering in rocket launch and observations will be rested.
Once briefed about the field plan, show the Journal Sheet to learners — on presentation.
We need to describe how a learner should fill the Journal sheet or Interpret one. Description for your reference is given below:
 Distance between the observation stations — It is the distance between two observation stations, measured in feet.
 Angle from observation station 1  It is the angle observed by observers placed at observation station no.1.
 Angle from observation station 2  It is the angle observed by observers placed at observation station no.2.
 Height achieved by flight — It is the calculated height achieved by a rocket once launched. It is calculated using a graph given in the sheet and previous observations made by learners. Next slide in the presentation would describe the process of calculation.
 Stability of Rocket — It is added after the votes from spectators — can have two values — stable or wobbled.
 Center of gravity of the rocket — Once learners have developed their rocket, they can balance the rocket on finger and identify the center of gravity of their rocket. Steps for measuring the center of gravity are shown on the next slide of the presentation. Learners would measure the distance of point from top and bottom of the rocket in centimeters and write their observation in the observation sheet in the following form — Top : Bottom (For example, 3cm:4cm).
Once learners are familiar with the sheet and how to fill in values in the sheets, an already filled in sheet is shown to learners and their doubts are taken, if any.
If time allows, let learners practice calculating the height using the graph method.
Provide them with following values (also given on slides):
 Distance between two observation stations = 45 feet
 Angle from Observation station 1 = 30 degree
 Angle from observation station 2 = 70 degree
What is the height achieved by a rocket?
Tell learners — The next activity will be all about setting up the testing environment in the field and launching their rockets using the field layout.
Emphasize that today learners have used social skills and communication skills, specify the events where learners have used mentioned skills.
Engagement 3
Observing Model Rocket’s Flight
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Inquiry Stage  I Connect 
Milestone  Studying, building, and testing key components of a rocket system 
Learning Objective  To observe the stability in flight of model rockets with variations in various design parameters and measure height of the flight using sextant and graph method. 
Learning Outcome 

Success Criteria 

Concepts  Angles (MSMSGEO09) Graphical Scaling (HSMSQNT02) Graphical geometry (MSMSGEO) 
Requirements (Mentors will need these to run the engagements) 

Tools and Material (Learners will require these to complete the tasks in this engagement) 

Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Task 5: Launch model rocket
What is expected through this task?
Learners go to an open field and set up the launching environment to observe the flight of their model rocket. Simultaneously, few volunteers among learners take observations of angle from two observation sites using a sextant and tell their observations to the mentor. Mentor keeps writing the learner's observations in their Journal sheet and hands over a filled up sheet to the team for calculating the distance achieved by their rocket using the graph method.
Take learners to an open area such as the ground or lawn. Provide each learner with the rocket template.
During the launch of the rocket, 8 to 12 learners would work as volunteers (which can change from launch to launch). The responsibilities of each volunteer are described below.
You may use field layout to arrange learners on the field.
2 volunteers will be asked to identify spots for two observation stations, each having a distance of 25 feet from the launch site.
Identify 2 to 4 learners of approximately the same height and weight to launch the rocket. It must be taken into consideration that none of the learners would launch the rocket of his/her team.
Mentor explains that 4 to 8 learners would work as observers where half would be deployed at one observation station (one from the launching team) and half on the other (again, one from the launching team). On both sides, one learner will hold the sextant, pointing towards the rocket, and the other will note the angle on the sextant when the rocket achieves the highest altitude.
The mentor is required to provide recorders with a Testing sheet before arranging the learners on the launching field.
Recorders would hand over the Testing sheet to the mentor after taking the observations for the assigned team.
Mentors may ask viewers to vote for the stability of the rocket and let observation recorders write down the majority's response.
Once the rocket of a team has been tested with a launch. For each team, the mentor fills up the angle of observation from station 1 and station 2, the distance between the two stations, and the stability of the rocket after taking votes from learners, provide sheets to the respective team and start the exercise of calculating the maximum height achieved by the rocket using a graph on the observation sheet.
All learners must have filledup Journal sheets of respective teams. Ask learners to measure the length single box on graph paper. Tell them to scale the graph paper as the length of one box equal to 2 feet to 5 feet. Ask learners to draw a horizontal line equivalent to the distance between two observation stations. Then, ask learners to follow steps they could recall from the video to calculate the maximum height achieved by the rocket built by each team. Help learners if they don’t recall the process properly or use video instructions again if you have brought learners back to the classroom environment.
Ask learners about the result they gain from the calculations. In case, there are fluctuations in learners’ findings, ask learners — What do you think made the difference in height achieved by the rocket of each team?
Take learners’ responses keeping the discussion around force applied, initial speed, design of the rocket, etc.
Engagement 4
Learning Objective  To help learners establish scientific and design foundations of rocket flight with help of their prior experience. 
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Milestone 

Learning Outcomes 

Skills Connection 

Knowledge Connection 

Requirements  Engagement Presentation; Project Journal 
Tools and Material  Thread (As per parts list); 1 Rupee Coin (As per parts list); Paper Tape  As per parts list; Protractor; Ruler; Learner’s Journal; Model Rocket Template and Building Guide  Printed Template 1 for each team; DIY Sextant Template and Building Guide  Printed Template for 4 pieces; Rocket Launcher Building Video Tutorial; Journal Sheet  Sample (Digital); Launching Field Layout (Digital); ICT (Preferably, 1 desktop with internet connection per team) 
Mentor References  
Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Engagement Flow
Learner Task No. 6: Find, how to achieve stable rocket flight?
In this engagement, learners test and analyze the designs of the 3 or more model rockets through the swing test. The objective is to connect them with the scientific applications behind a rocket design and its stable flight. During the engagement learners get familiar with key terms like center of gravity, center of pressure, aerodynamics, thrust, drag and lift.
MENTORLED [5 min]  
The mentor briefly discusses the “center of gravity (CG)” by balancing any object (white board marker, duster, pipe, for example) on a finger and asks teams to find the center of gravity of their rockets using the same process, and tell them to mark the point using a pen or marker. Mentor conducts swing test along with learners on following rocket models:
Reference for Mentors: How to perform the swing test 
Depending upon the number of rockets available, ask learners to tie a 1 meter thread on the centre of gravity rocket using paper tape or any other adhesive. You may also tell some learners (Depending upon the strength to try tying the thread on locations other than the center of gravity (ahead of CG or behind CG, for example).
Mentors may ask learners to perform a swing test or him/herself perform the test (depending upon class environment) to demonstrate differences in stability of the rocket when the point of force is displaced from center of gravity, when the rocket does not have fins, and when the rocket has a flat nose cone.
After demonstrating the swing test, and beginning the discussion on key terms, learners are asked to start working on the task — “Find how to achieve stable rocket flight”.
Ask learners to use ICT (or alternative resources, if ICT is not available at the moment — printed resources, for example) for exploring which concepts and design elements of rockets help them achieve stability during the flight. You may emphasize on the terms “center of gravity” and “center of pressure” before learners start searching for the answer. Tell learners to find out how these two concepts help a rocket in stability.
They may use “how rockets have a stable flight” in google search for better results. Other scaffolding statements can also be used by mentors.
LEARNERLED [15 min]  
Mentor states the task on the board and briefly explains the worksheet. Learners will browse through the internet and read through different sources for a right answer. Learners list relevant information and their sources in the given worksheet. Learners will complete the task by stating the final answer. Learners will paste their worksheet in the Project Journal. Mentor visits each of them to help them in identifying reliable sources and using the worksheet. Requirement: Stable Rocket Flight  Worksheet 
However, learners may find varied information which they should mention in the given worksheet along with the source (website) they found it from. At the end of the worksheet, they will mention the fact they feel is important for achieving a stable rocket flight.
MENTORLED [5 min]  
The mentor concludes the task and the engagement by telling about the fundamental principle of stable flight, i.e. CP (center of pressure) is behind the CG (center of gravity). Learners compare with their conclusion and put final remarks. 
Assessment
The engagement flow provides opportunity for mentors to observe and learners to practice following skills from the Makershala Learning Framework:
CSSCSSCRTNID03 
I can collect information from reliable sources and apply it to create varied solutions 
Learners use varied resources to answer their inquiries and use their findings to make improvements in their rocket design. Also, learners use articulation competence while explaining their findings to other classmates and teams. 
Mentors may assess learners on following scientific concepts using their observations from rocket flight and exploration around the inquiry — How to achieve stable rocket flight?
Laws of Motion (MSPSFAI) 
Learners come across various events in rocket flight that are explained using Newton's laws of motion. Thrust applied on the rocket is the result of air exerted in the direction opposite to the motion of the rocket, for example. 
Center of Gravity (MSPSFAI18) 
Center of gravity is an imaginary point of the rocket body where its weight is assumed to be concentrated. Center of gravity is an essential aspect of rocket design that is responsible for its stability. It is the point around which a rocket rotates when it observes a torque due to the resultant force from drag and lift. If it is too close to the back of the rocket (i.e. fins), the rocket may turn in the opposite direction (i.e. downwards) and become extremely unstable. Therefore, the center of gravity of the rocket must be kept as near as possible to the upper part of the rocket. 
Center of Pressure  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) 
In general, the center of pressure is the point on the rocket where aerodynamic forces on the rocket act — drag and lift, for example. Usually for model rockets, the center of pressure is tried to be kept at 1/4th of the distance from the back of the rocket, and the center of gravity must always lie ahead of the center of pressure, otherwise a destabilizing force is experienced by the rocket. Read this article for explanation. 
Aerodynamics (MSPSFAI52) 
Aerodynamics is the study of motion of an object in air. Fins and nose cones are effective design elements of a rocket that helps in reducing impact of drag and destabilizing torque produced by drag and lift. Center of gravity, center of pressure, and laws of motion also play an important role while studying rocket’s aerodynamics. Read this article to explore more about rocket’s aerodynamics. 
Engagement 5
Learning Objective  To enable learners to use open rocket software and swing test for designing model rockets and testing it for stability using the concept of center of gravity and center of pressure. 
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Milestone 

Learning Outcomes 

Skills Connection 

Knowledge Connection 

Requirements  Engagement Presentation Project Journal 
Tools and Material 

Mentor References  
Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Engagement Flow
Learner Task No. 7: Sketching an idea of a rocket that can carry the payload.
In this task, learners use OpenRocket simulation software to draft 2D sketches of rocket designs and analyze the rocket's center of pressure and center of gravity to ensure the drafted design is stable and feasible. Learners also add payload of desired dimensions and weight on the rocket so that to test changes in CG and CP after adding payload at different locations. Using the software, learners identify the location where they should put the payload on a rocket.
Learner Task No. 8: Test rocket’s stability using swing test
After developing the design on OpenROcket software, learners develop their model rocket with payload on it and test its stability using swing test.
MENTORLED [10 min]  
Mentor recommunicates the Project challenge to learners and tells them that they will now work on identifying a suitable location to put payload on the rocket and improve rocket design for its stability. Learners are told that they will use the OpenRocket platform for the purpose. Mentor opens the OpenRocket simulation software and shows learners how they can draft the design of their rocket on it, add payload on the rocket, and check the center of gravity and center of pressure of the rocket. Reference for Mentors: OpenRocket User Guide 
You may ask learners to test various designs of fins and nose cones on the rocket using the simulation software and they may also modify dimensions of the rocket to observe their impact on center of gravity and center of pressure. If interested, you may also give learners the context of rocket stability that is calculated in caliber. Reference to know more about rocket’s stability.
Learner’s may aslo test their previously failed design (model rocket’s that were not stable) on openrocket software to find reasons behind their failure.
LEARNERLED: Sketch model rocket with payload and test stability using swing test [20 min]  
Learners use ICT to access OpenRocket software and start drafting their rocket design on it using a presketch that they can draw on Rocket Sketchsheet. Requirement: Stable Rocket Flight  Worksheet Once learners come up with a desired design, they build a model rocket as per the design and use a swing test to test the stability of the rocket, remember, after adding the payload (preferably a 5 rupee coin) only. If successful, learners can be given approval on their rocket for final launch. In case learners’ designs don’t work well, they may make changes in their design on openRocket and then redevelop the model rocket to test its stability. It’s an interactive process!!! 
Mentors may note that the above mentioned task can be interactive and may take more time depending on school environment and strength of class.
Mentor should provide learners with some design constraint that would help learners to design their model rocket:
Sketch your rocket so that it can 5 rupee or 10 rupee coin as payload.
Build your design under following constraint:
The diameter should not exceed 2.6 centimeters.
Length of rocket can not exceed 40 centimeters.
Ensure that your rocket achieves maximum stability using OpenRocket Simulator.
You may check that stability should be between 3 to 5 caliber.
Suggestion: While learners are exploring the their model rocket design on OpenRocket, mentor may establish the concept of ratio by asking learners to find ratio of center of gravity to center of pressure (measuring respective point from the top of the rocket) and see if they can make a rule of stability out of it — If ratio is greater than 1, then the rocket is not stable, for example.
MENTORLED [5 min]  
Mentors conclude the engagement by stating that learners will be testing their model rocket with payload by launching it using the testing environment they have set up in previous tasks. 
Assessment
The engagement flow provides opportunity for mentors to observe and learners to practice following skills from the Makershala Learning Framework:
21CSSLCSICTAPP01 
I can use technology to investigate my findings. 
Learners use OpenRocket software to investigate their rocket’s stability when learners make changes in the rocket's fins, nose cones, and body. Learners also investigate the center of gravity and center of pressure of their proposed rocket design that would carry payload and analyze it for stability before building a model rocket on the basis of this design. 
21CSSLCSSCSPER02 
I can develop products that meet the criterion of design consideration. 
Learners develop a model rocket with the ability to carry a payload considering scientific aspects of various design elements such as fins, nose cones, rocket body, center of gravity, center of pressure, etc. 
Mentors may assess learners on following scientific concepts by creating various events for selfassessment, peer assessment, or mentorled assessments.
Center of Pressure  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) 
In general, the center of pressure is the point on the rocket where aerodynamic forces on the rocket act — drag and lift, for example. Usually for model rockets, the center of pressure is tried to be kept at 1/4th of the distance from the back of the rocket, and the center of gravity must always lie ahead of the center of pressure, otherwise a destabilizing force is experienced by the rocket. Read this article for explanation. 
Center of Gravity (MSPSFAI18) 
Center of gravity is an imaginary point of the rocket body where its weight is assumed to be concentrated. Center of gravity is an essential aspect of rocket design that is responsible for its stability. It is the point around which a rocket rotates when it observes a torque due to the resultant force from drag and lift. If it is too close to the back of the rocket (i.e. fins), the rocket may turn in the opposite direction (i.e. downwards) and become extremely unstable. Therefore, the center of gravity of the rocket must be kept as near as possible to the upper part of the rocket. 
Stability  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) 
Rocket’s stability is calculated in caliber. 1 caliber is equivalent to the maximum diameter of a rocket’s body. Using the maximum diameter of the rocket's body as a unit, the distance between center of gravity and center of pressure is calculated. If the rocket body’s maximum diameter is 3 cm, and distance between center of gravity and center of pressure is 7.5 centimetres, then Stability will be equal to 2.5 (7.5/3) calibres. Rocket’s stability must lie between 1 and 5, otherwise the rocket would become unstable during flight. 
Ratio (MSMSRPR01) 
Ratios are a simplified way to formulate physical constraints of some physical parameters. Learners may use the ratio of center of gravity and center of pressure (when measured from the top of the rocket) to set a limit for stability. For example — If the center of pressure is at 27.3 cm from the top of the rocket and the center of gravity is 23.7 cm, the ratio of CG to CP comes out to be 0.86. Using this, learners may come to a conclusion that if CG:CP is less that 0.9, it is stable, and if it is more than o.9, it may not be stable. Application of ration can also be taken with other physical parameters such as rocket weight to payload weight, rocket diameter to rocket length, etc. 
Engagement 6
Learning Objective  To test the model rocket with payload and develop a report on the basis of their observations and learnings. 
Estimated Time  30 to 40 minutes 
Milestone 

Learning Outcomes 

Skills Connection 

Knowledge Connection 

Requirements  
Tools and Material 

Mentor References  NA 
Assessments  Not applicable for this engagement  Still mentor can prepare one, required 
Note  Arrange all requirements and try handson activities (if applicable) before the session in which you would conduct this engagement. 
Engagement Flow
Learner Task No. 9: Launching Rocket with payload and testing it’s flight.
In this task, learners launch the model rocket they have developed to carry the payload and test its flight for stability and ability to carry the payload to a certain height (Mentor may specify some height as per learner’s previous observations).
MENTORLED [5 min]  
Mentor restate the challenge to learners and ask them to prepare for the launch of their model rocket with payload. Mentor ensures that an open field and other requirements to setup the launching environment are available to learners. 
Mentor takes learners to the open field and provides each team with the Journal sheet to write their observations and the observers and recorders with Testing sheets to write observations of angles from both observation stations.
LEARNERLED: Setup launch environment and launch model rocket with payload [30 min]  
Learners setup the launch environment as they have done during engagement 3, using the Field plan. Then each team launches their model rocket with payload and writes their observations in Journal sheets. Using the graph method, each team calculates the maximum height achieved by the rocket with payload and write their observations about the stability of the rocket. 
Mentors may provide learners with few chances to improve their model rocket’s design and retest it for stability and flight, depending on the school’s environment and time availability.
Once learners have tested their model rocket and completed the challenge of the project. Mentors should ask learners to demonstrate their learning through the project using a presentation of a blog.
LEARNERLED [5 min]  
learners use makershala platform to add their presentation on project journeys or write a blog to demonstrate their learning. Makershala Portal Activity: Publish the Project 
Assessment
The engagement flow provides opportunity for mentors to observe and learners to practice following skills from the Makershala Learning Framework:
21CSSCSSCRTNID01 
I can evaluate the efficacy of the current product. 
Learners test the efficacy of model rockets designed by them for its ability to carry the payload and stability it maintains during the flight. 
21CSSCSSINOINV03 
I can reflect critically on experiences or processes to make alterations. 
Learners critically analyze the flight of their rocket keeping all design parameters under consideration. Accordingly they try to make alterations in model rocket design to improve its flight with payload. 
21CSSLCSICTAPP03 
I can use technological tools to communicate information 
Learners use Makershala LMS to communicate their learning from the project journey using a blog or presentation. 
Mentors may assess learners on following scientific concepts by creating various events for selfassessment, peer assessment, or mentorled assessments.
Center of Pressure  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) 
In general, the center of pressure is the point on the rocket where aerodynamic forces on the rocket act — drag and lift, for example. Usually for model rockets, the center of pressure is tried to be kept at 1/4th of the distance from the back of the rocket, and the center of gravity must always lie ahead of the center of pressure, otherwise a destabilizing force is experienced by the rocket. Read this article for explanation. 
Center of Gravity (MSPSFAI18) 
Center of gravity is an imaginary point of the rocket body where its weight is assumed to be concentrated. Center of gravity is an essential aspect of rocket design that is responsible for its stability. It is the point around which a rocket rotates when it observes a torque due to the resultant force from drag and lift. If it is too close to the back of the rocket (i.e. fins), the rocket may turn in the opposite direction (i.e. downwards) and become extremely unstable. Therefore, the center of gravity of the rocket must be kept as near as possible to the upper part of the rocket. 
Stability  Force and Interaction(MSPSFAI) 
Rocket’s stability is calculated in caliber. 1 caliber is equivalent to the maximum diameter of a rocket’s body. Using the maximum diameter of the rocket's body as a unit, the distance between center of gravity and center of pressure is calculated. If the rocket body’s maximum diameter is 3 cm, and distance between center of gravity and center of pressure is 7.5 centimetres, then Stability will be equal to 2.5 (7.5/3) calibres. Rocket’s stability must lie between 1 and 5, otherwise the rocket would become unstable during flight. 
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